星期日, 8月 14, 2005

胡泳講中國大陸的博客 (網絡)/ An introduction of bloggers @ mainland China by WU Yong (Internet)

(English version please see below)

相信在香港的上網者,都有一些接觸中國大陸(內地)網上資訊的經驗。如此推論,香港的網誌寫手,想很難不讀來自中國大陸的網誌(blog)。除了親身閱覽以外,聽聽當地觀察者的意見,也可望加深我們對大陸網誌的認識。自己看的大陸網誌不多,聽到有大陸觀察者介紹,演講會的會場又方便自己,於是去了聽,兼做了筆記。

觀察者,也就是講者,姓胡名泳,現時為中央電視台經濟頻道(頻道2)製片人,也是資深的互聯網業者。講座由香港大學新聞及傳媒研究中心主辦,聽眾約五十人,不少為記者。

他的開場白引述了不少數字,主要為了說明大陸互聯網的飛速發展。他也提到,大陸互聯網上的內容,可能跟外界想像的不同,比較多元;而國外認為的「互聯網業跟技術會使大陸迅速變化」,以及「大陸政府是個網上老大哥」的想法,可能跟事實有距離。然而,國外的看法不一定等同當局者所想,依然具有參考價值,雙方的交流因而見得有其需要。

他接著簡介這幾年的,生成大陸博客的社會背景。他引Kristof N.所言,大陸已漸漸重見強國的規模。在階級方面,固有的工農階級演化成更多的階層。雖然經濟改革使經濟生活的限制愈見寬鬆,但官方意志依然壟斷媒體,互聯網成了民眾發聲的出口,對外呈現網絡民族主義,對內則見對現實的批判。消費主義主導了不少人的想法,不滿現實、厭倦政治的年輕人,也會運用互聯網,如網上遊戲或交友服務以解悶,或寫貼心情文章以抒發情感。

網民人數方面,現時大陸網民約一億人。按他引述的一個受訪者1164人,在五個大城市(包括北京、上海、長沙等)的調查指,從未使用網誌的受訪者佔七成一,只有百分之一的受訪者說經常使用,常用、偶而和有時使用的,則分別佔百分之三、百分之九和百分之十六。按他估計,內地博客當有二至三百萬人左右,人數自2002年網誌平台初推出起,漸漸增加,而提供網誌服務的公司(Blog Services Provider, BSP)也多了。

他特別介紹了三類型的博客。不過他反覆說明,那並不是大陸博客的僅有面貌,如一群討論技術的博客,他並未介紹。而我以為他介紹的第三種博客,是否博客也成疑問。

第一種是憤青,即憤怒青年。在我的認識裡,很多在網上活動的憤青,大多是言辭激烈,甚恨外國欺凌壓迫中國,更有一些憤青不時發一些奇想,或為敵人的陰謀,或為振興國家民族的偏鋒大計;至於大陸發生的事,他們似乎沒這般強烈反應。胡泳則認為,憤青的定義比較複雜,但簡單說來,他們是居於城市的知識青年,並懷有社會義憤。他引述了博客對黑龍江沙蘭鎮水禍的悼念詩,他們對《南方週末》被禁的相關報導,和採訪手記的轉載,說明憤青的社會關懷。然而有機會親歷事件後報導的博客只佔少數,往往博客都是評論時事,也就是憤青的主要表現處。除了內地時事,人民政府的外交事務,或台灣事務都是憤青們常談的題目,反美反日等態度構成憤青的形象。他以為,憤青帶出了民眾的社會參與,但他們的言論,偏激的觀點很多。

第二種是小資,即小資產階級。文化大革命時,小資沒機會生存,但經歷二十多年的經濟改革,小資成了城市的一個群體。他們是都市人、白領、年輕、有點錢、追求更好的物質和精神生活和時尚,也感性。他們表現了對大理想的失落——胡引述一個小資博客所寫的,大意如此:「某人講理想時,我能否有權在他的殿堂裡上廁所?」——,很多也厭倦政治,而他們寫的網誌,文章多偏向感性。胡表示小資變成憤青,或憤青變成小資,都較容易,但除了他述及的共同生活背景,即兩者都是都市的高教育程度年輕人外,他並沒具體言明還有甚麼原因,使兩種身份容易互換。

他亦提到幾個屬小資類的博客:寫性文字見稱的作家木子美,文字具探索意味的竹影青曈,以及近日受人留意,難賦與意義的芙蓉姐姐。他認為,三人的圖文都是對大陸社會容忍力的測試。及後有聽眾按他的發言,問他小資型博客為何女性居多,他答謂女性在大陸社會已漸抬頭,而國家社會等項壟斷社會討論的情況亦已不復見,也能談談個人的小天地——然而女性跟小天地為何有關,甚至為何必然有關,就語焉不詳。

答問時也有聽眾問及,感性類的網誌為何比政治社會的多,胡表示理想被解構,政治限制令大陸憤青的想法無法實現,加上消費、感性等元素主導人心和青年文化,感性內容佔多的情況很難扭轉。他亦引了美國得州一個少女網誌的調查結果,指生活型網誌比社政網誌多該是各地普遍的現象。

看網誌、寫網誌一旦成為時尚,BSP就會惹來風險基金的垂青,那也是胡口中的第三類型博客:商人。商人為了加強BSP的吸引力和潛藏的營利能力,會請一些具吸引力的博客加盟,藉此增加瀏覽量。反對者當然會有,但很難成功扭轉局面。那麼,胡泳有否談及會在網誌寫從商、管理或投資之道的博客呢?沒有。因此他提的「第三種博客」,在博客或網誌寫手的定義言,難以說服我他們也是一種博客。

這些網誌既來自大陸,也很難避開大陸政府對互聯網和網站內容的限制。網誌於大陸風行前,大陸政府已對新聞網站和網上出版發出規定,網上內容供應商(Internet Content Provider, ICP)要先領牌才能發布新聞,行之有年,網上的過濾機制亦為大陸內外網民所知。去年北大YTHT電子告示板系統(BBS)被「整頓」而不復存在,是政府對互聯網的另一些管制;今年則輪到網誌:一些網誌平台不能連接(是的,包括我用的blogspot),有些網誌寫手得四處搬blog。而今年三月份信息產業部啟動的網站備案登記,使網站跟傳統媒體般趨向自律。對於大陸政府倡導的網上實名制,他個人反對這種做法,指它會窒礙網上發表意見,亦影響網上討論型網站的發展。

限制多了,可胡泳指,博客的出現也代表公民社會的出現,尤在這刻固有傳媒監督社會的環境漸趨惡化,其他發聲渠道又難以運用之時,博客(看怕也要加上web forum及BBS吧)還有其意義在。


I believe our Hong Kong net surfers have read some, if not much, internet materials come from Mainland China. It may derive a saying that Hong Kong bloggers should read some blogs written by Mainland bloggers. Besides reading, we may understanding more about Mainland blogs by listening to Mainland observers. I read few Mainland blogs, and it was one of the reason that I attended a seminar held by a Mainland observer. Also, I could reach the venue easily.

The speaker, and the observer, is WU Yong, a producer of CCTV's channel 2, an economic and finance channel. He is also a veteran in Internet business. The seminar was held by HKU's Journalism and Media Studies Centre, some 50 people attended and plenty of them are reporters.

Firstly he quoted figures to tell the high growing speed of Mainland's Internet. He also said that, perhaps different from thoughts of outsiders, Internet contents from Mainland China may be more varied, and it may not always true for the sayings of "Internet trade and technology change Mainland rapidly" and "PRC Government is a 'Big Brother' in Internet". Nevertheless, these comments still have their merits and it is a good thing for the both sides exchange ideas.

His presentation followed by a brief introduction of the mainland society, at the moment of the raising of Mainland China bloggers. He quoted the saying of Kristof N., said that Mainland having been returning as a great and strong country. Classes has been diversified from workers and peasants, to more. Economic reform brought a freer economic life; however, the will of the state still dominates mass media, and internet become the exit of citizens' voices. These voices come to a critique in internal affairs, and internet nationalism when talking about foreign affairs. The thought of spending also dominated the thought of much people. Those young people who got feed up of politics and real life, also utilize the net, for example, online game, friend matching, or publishing articles about feeling.

Now there are around 100 million net users in Mainland. He quoted the result of a survey, with N = 1164, which was held in 5 cities, including Beijing, Chengsha and Shanghai, and found out that 71% of interviewee never use blog. Only 1% said 'always', the respondents of 'often', 'sometimes' and 'less than sometimes' are 3%, 9% and 16% respectively. He estimated since the launch of blog in Mainland in 2002, the number of Mainland bloggers has been raised to 2 to 3 million, also there is an increase of Blog Services Provider, or BSP.

Regarding to bloggers, he mentioned three types of them, and repeated the saying that his introduction is not exhaustive, for example, he did not say too much about technological bloggers. For the last type of 'bloggers', I wonder if they are really bloggers.

Fenqing, or FQ, which literally means Angry Youth, is the first type. As I know, many FQ saying exterme in network, they hate foreign aggressors very much. There are also some FQ saying something funny, maybe enemies' conspiracy, or a extraoridinary way to bring the country stronger. They seems less enthuastic towards Mainland affairs. Wu pointed out the definition of FQ is somehow complicated; however, they can be told as young, educated urban residents, and be attached with what happened in the society. He showed the audience how FQ concern the society, by quoting the poems bloggers had written for the deaths in recent flood tragedy in the towm of Shalan, Heilongjiang, and the banned report which was going to be published in Nanfang Zhoumo (Southern Weekend), and an article written by the reporter who wrote the story. There is few lucky FQ has written own report, and most of them shows their concern by commenting news. For foreign affairs, the foreign policy of PRC government, or Mainland-Taiwan affairs comes to FQs' major topic, and people notice their anti-US or anti-Japan attitude. He conclude that FQ shows the social participation of ordinary people, but their words consist of a large part of extreme thoughts.

The second type is Xiaozi, which means petty bourgeoisie. It was impossible to be a XZ in Cultural Revolution's Mainland China. After an economic reform for more than 20 years, XZ forms a group in many cities. They are urban citizens, mainly white collars, young, have some money, want a better, fashionable material and spiritual life, and emotional. They have few or no interest in grand goal, and politics as well. Wu quoted a XZ blogger saying, not exactly: May I have the right to be excused before someone preaching his/her great goal? Needless to say, they write many words about feeling. He said that the interchange between FQ and XZ is easy. I wonder the reason behind this, although I understand their common background.

Then he introduced three XZ bloggers to us. Muzi Mei, a writer specializes in sex content; Zhuying Qingtong, writing as exploration; and today's hittest, a young woman hard to be defined, Fuyong Jiejie. He thought their words are testing the tolerance of Mainland society. An audience asked him why female comes most in XZ bloggers, he said that it shows the raising social status of female in society, and the state or social issue no longer monopolizes, people can say something about themselves. But he has not made clear the relation between 'self issues' and 'female'.

After his presentation, somebody asked the reason of there are more blogs telling feelings than soci-political affairs. Wu replied that the deconstruction of great ideas, the political barriers which hinder the realization of FQs' 'plans', and the domination of consumption and emotion, all contribute the greater portion of emotional contents. He also quoted a survey about the blogs from Texas, USA, and pointed out 'feelings rules' should be universal.

Venture capital has interest in BSP when blog come fashion. Venture capital, or business people, is the third type of bloggers. Business people invite famous bloggers to their BSP, to make their BSP more attractive, and raise the potential profitability. This direction of course is being against by some bloggers, but Wu believed the latter hardly get success. And Wu has not tell anything about blogs which are about business operation, management or investment. I think his 'type 3' cannot be regarded as bloggers.

Mainland blogs are inevitably under the restriction of internet and net content from PRC government. Before the raise of blogging, PRC government had have rules about news websites and web publishing. ICP, or Internet Content Provider, have to get a license for their news content, and such policy has been ran for years. Mainland is also well-known of web-filtering. Last year, the closure of YTHT BBS, Peking University, showed another side of internet control from the government. This year blog became the target. Some BSP, including blogspot/blogger I am using, has been barred from connection. Some Mainlanf bloggers have to switch among BSPs. The Ministry of Information Industry has requested registration of web sites since March, which resulted a self-discipline of web sites. Wu was against the using of real names in internet, which PRC government is launching. He said that it hinders the discussion in internet.

Though limits are increasing, Wu believed blogs (perhaps in addition of BBS and web forum?) mean a raise of civil society, and also some additional meaning at the time of traditional media become harder as watchdogs, and difficult to utilise other means of expression.

講座基本資料 Basic information of the seminar, in BIG5 Chinese only
講座報導轉載 A quoted report of the seminar

3 Comments:

Anonymous 別問我是誰 said...

據說在美國的bloggers,可以享有記者的禮遇。因為他們發布的資訊,足以搖撼社會。我那個不爭氣的blog,好frustrated!!!

週日 8月 14, 02:47:00 下午 GMT+8  
Blogger 一方 said...

收到您的留言,謝謝。您這篇記錄文章寫得很好,更難得同期提供中英雙語版本,對不通曉中文的博客來說,尤其顯得珍貴。當天本來打算抽空出席的,不過會議纏身,及後來才想起已經錯過了這次講座。說起來有點對不起邀我出席的錢鋼先生呢。

週三 8月 17, 10:06:00 下午 GMT+8  
Blogger Eric 'Spanner' said...

一方:英語版補完工程未完成,待續。

週一 8月 22, 09:19:00 下午 GMT+8  

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